Profits: Renting home through Property Management Columbia SC
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Capitanich highlighted the evolution of the software industry
During the meeting, the coordinating minister stressed that “the sector has worked very well during the year” and congratulated everyone for the significant progress made since the first meeting with the chain. Notably, during 2014, the level of overall turnover in the sector was equivalent to 4,380 million, showing an increase of 27.2 percent. Moreover, the expansion of software service exports reached 12.2% year, managing to export by 1,117 million dollars. While in the case of employment, about 100,000 people currently work in the industry, including employees and small entrepreneurs, which means an increase approximately 10.6%. From the Law 25.922 of 2004, relating to the Promotion Software Industry as amended laws, this value chain has achieved an expansion of employment of 418%, an increase of 557% in the volume of exports and an expansion of 378% in total turnover if data are compared from 2003-2014. Finally, different topics related to the sector ranged from funding programs through the Trust Fund for the Promotion of the Software Industry (Fonsoft), which has invested 95 million pesos in 2014 were developed and Technology Fund Argentino (Fontar) to the challenges in the training of human resources, the importance of technological poles and decentralization of universities and exports to Latin American markets. were present along the Cabinet Chief Jorge Capitanich, Secretary of Employment, Matías Barroetaveña; chief of staff of the Department of Economic Coordination and Improvement of Competitiveness, Laura Fernández; Under Secretary for Industry, Stella Maris Ayala Escobar. For the private sector the president of the Chamber of Software and Computer Services of Argentina (CESSI), José María Louzao Andrade participated, among other officials, consultants and representatives of the Chamber.
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Our products: Five accounting applications for small businesses
As you know there are dozens of excellent options open source software for bookkeeping codefrom complex and completísimos programs to simple and basic billing accounting, inventory tracking, retail, payroll, taxes, reporting and forecasting. Now will feature five of them.
Accounting software, will help you understand the entire flow of your business : what works and what needs to be repaired or improved. It helps you find out who your most valuable customers are and gives you an idea to retain existing customers and attract new customers. A lot of small businesses have a very good idea in your head, but that is not scalable and replicable, and when you view the actual data often reveals surprises.
Some of these accounting software programs make use of the options in the cloud . Although there are still companies that are still a bit “paranoid” and do not trust store your confidential data based on these systems that store the data of the company and customers outside his premises.
Especially considering the sad story of the long interruptions with large providers such as Amazon, PayPal, Microsoft, Intuit and Google. The cloud-based technologies are supposed to be proof of service interruptions, but apparently this is still theoretical. Without further ado, here are five selections accounting software for small / medium businesses open source.
MYOB is a financial application that uses small double-entry bookkeeping and personal business, and this is doubly important because it guarantees that can detect errors and trace its origin.
MYOB is extremely flexible , the more you learn about it more can adapt it to suit your own needs.It supports accounts receivable and payable, billing, investment accounts, bank accounts, credit and lending, tax returns, reports, graphs, multiple currencies, depreciation, tax tables and more. No point of sale or payroll module , although you can use to manage the payroll of a small number of employees manually entering variables taxes and other payroll.
More Information | GnuCash
SQL Ledgeres one web-based system for shops that need work and purchase orders, packing lists, point of sale, inventory control, check printing, multi-user, multi-location, vouchers or time cards, in addition to usual accounting functions. A web server and a server requires SQL , and is multiplatform.I have to emphasize that works best on Linux, and really your confidential financial details were in a safer system.
There are two versions: free and company . A subscription to the enterprise version adds additional features like barcode and label printing, consolidating bills, good payroll module, an integrated help system editable and premium email and phone support.
Support starts at 130 euros for a reference manual. The support incident is 140 euros, 600 euros if you buy a year of priority support and other extra options, there are several other support options.Runs on Linux, Mac and Windows.
More Information | SQL Ledger
XTuple PostBooks is the core of the excellent suite xTuple ERP . It includes seven modules: Accounting, Sales, CRM ., manufacturing, purchasing, inventory and products There are five editions: PostBooks, Standard, design, manufacturing, and Enterprise . PostBooks is free, and includes high-end features like multi-user and multi-location, tickets, a task manager, quotes, shipping / receiving, BOM and assembly ordering configurator.
The annual licenses for the other editions ranging from 400 euros to 1,500 euros per year per year. There are also lifetime license and a license for the options in the cloud. Obviously the more money you invest more extra features available such as capacity planning, asset management and depreciation, multi-warehouse inventory management etc.
xTuple is good for growing small business , because you can start with Standard functionality and adding what you need. It also supports and works with Linux, Mac, Windows systems.
More Information | xTuple ERP
Compiere offers an open / free, plus commercial editions with additional features version. Compiere includes full accounting , plus enterprise resource planning and customer-based administration.The free version is replete with high functionality and may be all you need: project accounting, electronic commerce, material accounting, order management, sales and service, and much more.
The Enterprise Edition adds support for multiple servers, scorecards excellent management, reporting in PDF , smart business and a visual dictionary editor. This is a unique feature for customization of Compiere without programming skills using a GUI editor modules simply dragging and dropping. Compiere is among the best in international media: multi-currency, tax laws, accounting standards and languages.
Compiere Professional Edition will cost 750 euros per user per year , there are subscriptions to the cloud and other support options. It works and is compatible with Linux, Mac, Windows.
More Information | Compiere
Turbo Cash is a competitor to QuickBooks Pro and Sage . Supports multiple languages and from many different countries. Includes point of sale and sale prices, billing, reporting and analysis, inventory and stock, barcodes, quotes, check balance, batch operations, IVA , multi-user and access controls. It is one of the free / Free programs fuller accounting.
Turbo Cash also noted for its ease of use , and has a clean, attractive interface. It is free with commercial support options. Printed manuals, CDs, and a version USB laptop that is available at a reasonable price. Only works with Windows.
New product: PROGRAM FOR MANAGING SPAS
PROGRAM FOR MANAGING SPAS – AM SYSTEM
FABRICANTE AM System
Management software spas. Software that facilitates the management and control of the spa. It can be integrated into the hotel program.
5% DISCOUNT € 1,686.25
PROGRAM FOR MANAGING SPAS
This software, specially designed for managing spas, the computer takes control of the different processes that occur in the business of health treatments (control treatments, planning, customer input IMSERSO, services, medical procedures, etc. ). Treasury functions (receipts and bank documents) are also covered by the application.
It is a software that integrates with the Program Hotel , so also allows access to the rooms, loading these bills relating to employees, customers movements, etc.
The main features of the software are:
- Simplicity of operation, intuitive operation.
- Integration Software for Hotels . You can pass charges to rooms and access to different parts of the business: stays, employees, customers, services, etc.
- Multigestión. You can divide the activity for years and spas.
- Management employees, active and non-active.
- Management clients, companies and agencies. All actions contemplated private clients, companies or agencies.
- Aim charges automatically.
- We can check all charges with their varieties (total charge, an outstanding part, eliminating any, etc.) We can also change data in any concept and consult previous bills.
- Take control of payment in all its forms (cards, bonds, etc.).
- Setup programs and circuits. You can group several treatments in a program or circuit to keep better control of management treatments.
- Planning treatments. Through planning spa, a grid is accessed planned treatments, with the possibility to make changes or delete any of them, adding, removing, moving, etc. You can set the schedule at our convenience, for example by changing the increase from 1 minute to 1 hour, see treatments every day, a month, etc. using for this agenda offered by new York city day spa.
- Report of times per customer. It is listed at the time of treatment you will receive each client.
- Medical Management. The program allows you to record medical visits and includes a control medical history of each patient.
- Report of work. Useful for employees to identify treatments that are outstanding for a period of time.
- Medical Report post thermal cure. Emission reports for customers IMSERSO.
- Generation and restoring backups. Checking, repair and compacting state databases.
- Management and control of users or user groups using profiles.
SketchChair: an open-source program to design and manufacture your chair
The processes of digital manufacturing open a range of opportunities for the production of custom objects, but today lack the tools that allow any use these processes to design and manufacture their own products. SketchChair created in response to this shortcoming: it is an open software Free -source that enable anyone to easily design and build their own furniture to digitally manufacture.
Moreover, from the program, users can go to the net chairs that have been created, adding them to a library of designs here: hire chairs London. Also, any of these chairs is available to be downloaded and edited by others, which allows the design of a product evolve and improve.
SketchChair is a project developed by Greg Saul and Tiago Rorke ofDiatom Studio and has seen the light thanks to Kickstarter .
Below you can see a summary of the process of making furniture and some examples. Do not miss the end the video that explains the phases of design and production of a piece!
New software: Create your own photo booth with dslrBooth
A photo booth for all those who are less than 25 years and have not seen the movie Amélie , is (or was) a photo booth that takes snapshots , usually in sequences of four. Each frame is separated by a few seconds, but first let you know it is about to take a picture with a beep or an indicator light.
Today’s photo booths are deprecated , probably by the arrival of cameras with SMS capabilities we carry in our pockets, but his fanbase is still present, creating databases on their locations . Taking photographs inside there is a whole, banal, but fun at last experience, we can now emulate thanks to digital technology.
dslrBooth is the intended application , as with most Canon and Nikon models can create a similar interface to which you expect from a photo booth, combined with a laptop or a desktop. dslrBooth allowed to take pictures in any format, apply any funds until even personalized water marks, besides that once the “session” prints the results to any printer that is connected.
dslrBooth created by photo booth hire Melbourne is offered as proof version for a week ; after this you have to pay $ 40 dollars for the full version. The list of supported cameras with the program here .
The best applications for baby care
Have you ever forgotten to change your baby’s diaper or bottle feeding? Are no longer! They have created some applications that will help the baby care . These are the best …
Baby connected: Allows you to keep abreast of new tricks to baby care and some tips . The advantage is that you can send the information to emails.
Baby Control: Through graphic will be prompted to hours are indicated to change the baby’s diaper. It also indicates the breast or bottle jacks with prepared quantities, in order to keep track of BMI approved by the World Health Organization.
Baby ESP Developed by www.thingsimgratefulfor.com: monitors the diaper changing, feedings, making bottles, naps and nighttime sleep extractions of milk.
My baby : This app finds the best baby carrier for nursing, Displays the time at which to check the diaper, and statistics reflecting the digestive system of the baby. It also indicates the timing and amount of milk should consume, it also suggests how to start complementary feeding.
Baby care: Their role is to remind parents basic care that requires the least. The most important thing is that you can control the mood, vaccines, medicines, bath time and bedtime, among others. You can add pictures of the baby.
Now you can maintain control and better care for your baby. What do you expect? Download and theseapplications .
New product: Dentist Management Software
As a company specialized in the development of software for the management and the use of information technologies in the healthcare environment, from Infomed we offer the best solutions in programs for dentists and dental professionals.
Infomed develop tools powerful, intuitive and easy to use to facilitate the day-to-day management of any dental clinic or medical center. Therefore, if you are looking for professionals in the development and implementation of programs for dentists we guarantee a personalized service and a solution tailored to your needs. We have tested the programs for dentists in Dentist in Albuquerque, NM.
Infomed we facilitate the daily work with our dental management software , putting the latest technology at the service of dentistry.
In addition to programs for dentists, we develop medical management software and custom applications. Our software is already implanted in over 8,000 health centers across the country, and at the institutional level, we collaborate with more than 60 professional associations and scientific societies of physicians and dentists. Do not hesitate and ask for information without compromise calling telephone number 902 10 44 22 or by filling the contact form that we make available on our website.
Please watch our introduction of the software:
Best marketing softwares to boost your business
Companies aspiring to effectively spread the word about their offerings, attract customers, participate with them and, finally, to retain them, have to adapt to the drastic changes so that prevail at present; those who do not will be back. According to the majasolutions.net, these are 5 programs marketing that will help companies that appeal to a change in this was digital.
1-Marketo: It is one of the largest enterprises of marketing automation and greater prestige. It facilitates the growth of marketingcampaigns. Marketo provides everything that retailers need, including tools for automation of internal marketing ; management leadership, social media, sales and analysis management dashboards marketing.
2-Vocus: The marketing cloud -based software and that help to get and retain customers. Promotes ease for sellers and that they can move through social networks and other means of online communication. Vocus offers a comprehensive set of tools that integrate social media marketing, search engine, e-mail marketing marketing, as well as effective PR.
3-Hubspot: offers a wonderful solution of internal marketing as personalized and effective alternative to traditional marketing strategies that tends to “annoy” to consumers. He has developed a number of marketing applications including blogs, social networks, potential customer management tools and even analysis of marketing that people need.
4-Sailthru: It aims to increase the participation of the user and the data conversion through intelligent programs that enable marketers to use and thus understand and respond best to users in real time. This translates into a personalized experience for the user in the form of e-mail mnarketing.
5-LocalVox: It is a platform for local, social and mobile marketing for businesses, it helps to generate news and attract customers local via the web, mobile, social networking, newsletters by email and search.
How it works – steps to create a survey online
Creation of survey online
Create surveys and votes online quickly with our survey software. You can create online surveys, using a survey drafted by professional model or upload your survey directly from an archive Word. With more than 30 types of questions and dozens of colors of themes, QuestionPro simplifies creating surveys online.
Communicate with your customers wherever that use our email system, our functions for inclusion in your web site, believe emerging and exit surveys, or make publications on social networks like Facebook, Twitter or Google +. QuestionPro Surveys look great on mobile devices or tablets, and even you can collect responses offline using our app for iPad, iPhone and Android tablet.
We simplify the analysis with a full set of functions to generate reports, as a summary in real time, dynamic tables, segmentation tools, trend analysis and text analysis. You can also export your survey data directly to Excel, SPSS, or CSV. We make it simple to share results with reports in Word and PowerPoint format or creating great-looking graphics.
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Create professional surveys has never been so easy, either to start from zero, or that use a model survey.
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No matter where your customers are online or offline: we provide you the tools so that you can contact them.
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Service customer live 24 hours a day, we are always here to simplify your life
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Information technology: an industry with hard work and great pay
Young people who specialize in information technology, will have access to best put of work and wages, thus a recent report of the GeneXus firm revealed it. Along with this,we tell you what other industries are postulated as the most promising for the next fiveyears and how to find teen jobs near me
Web site against trafficking in persons
Bankruptcy of Apple in the manufacture of screen of Sapphire
Signature GT Advanced Technologies made the bankruptcy order after recording a 90% decline in the value of their shares. It was rumored that the firm was going to produce crystals of the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus, something that finally happened.
GT Advanced Technologies Inc, partner of Apple in the manufacture of screens of Sapphire Crystal, presented Monday a bankruptcy order. The company’s shares had fallen by 90% in recent times, in the 75 cents.
Months ago, GT was one of the companies most projection in the glass industry, to obtain a rating of 2.8 billion dollars last July. At that time, all speculated that the signing of Bankruptcy in Arizona, AZ will be responsible for covering the new iPhone screens 6 and 6 Plus.
The actions of the manufacturer had doubled in November 2013 and on 9 September 2014, when new Apple smartphones were announced. Investors hoped that GT replicated the success gained Corning in its crystals Gorilla Glass.
Once submitted the telephones, which did not include displays of Sapphire between its components, papers of the company crumbled to 36%. A month ago, GT had indicated that its plant in Arizona would enter into operation recently at the beginning of 2015.
Specifically, the company had asked Apple 139 million dollars extra to complete production line. To date, of Cupertino had already disbursed $ 439 million. “Apparently, something broke in the relationship between Apple and Advanced GT”, said Pavel Molchanov, analyst firm Raymond James in statements made to the Reuters Agency.
Apple, which still plans to use sapphire crystals in their smart watches Apple Watch, has an agreement with GT which allows you to have an exclusive license on certain applications of its technology of Sapphire Crystal, but has no obligation to be sure that to buy their products.
According to data from Markit market analysis firm, 43 per cent of the shares of GT Advanced were purchased for “short bets”, which indicates that there were a large number of investors who thought that a drastic fall in the price of the papers was possible in the short term.
Learn about five applications for the market real estate
Take a weekend to go through all the streets of the city looking for signs in the windows of houses or apartments that are for lease or purchase is a thing of the past. Technology once again saves the consumer time and through application development you can find to click all properties offer according to your needs (click makelaardij to get more detail)
In Colombia the development of applications is growing, currently with multiple applications of property root, which have been spurred by the Ministry of information technologies and communications under the plan lives Digital. This is how last year exported more than $37 million in digital content.
Likewise, the private initiatives did not wait and Camilo Gómez, Manager of income well, an important group of real estate, is developing software that allows them to be homogeneous and information accurately on the demand and offer of real estates in the country.
Gomez said that “application development has benefited the industry in general. As both web pages and apps are the communication channel for products with customers. Now you can see the interior of the houses with a single click, people make searches more successful, efficient and specific, finding more appropriate places in the budget that seeks”.
Five applications are currently set the standard in this Field. Lamundi, Housing, Tubogota, App-square meter and Biinmo. In less than four months got 50,000 users throughout the country, allowing real estate entrepreneurs to publish information in real time from their properties with details such as images, geo-location, and even your contact details for talks by Whatsapp.
Erick Rincon Cardenas, general manager of Certicamara, this tool creator Agency, explained that “Biinmo is the tool that will revolutionize the real estate sector in the country in the coming year, because on the one hand it makes more efficient and prosperous business of agencies as easier access to the goods consumers”.
Another mobile application connecting supply and demand in the real estate sector is Lamudi, in which users can for free through mobile devices make customized searches of filter by area, property type, price, search by words and the number of rooms. The client can receive notifications when there are new properties for sale or rent and also have at your disposal records according to the criteria of search that has previously done.Similarly, the app has Gallery of images and detailed information on all the properties.
Your Bogotá is a digital solution, not only for those looking to rent or sell real estate, is also a useful tool for the construction industry, as it allows the user through an interactive map to identify variables for housing and investment decisions.
Tubogota has detailed information about the value of square meter of an area or sector-specific, also shows the proximity of the work with health centers, educational institutions, centres of culture, trade and tourism.Also, determine the risk and the security sector, as well as access and mobility, the environment and public space. All this is key as it will determine, according to the experts, the price of real estate built once and the rate of profit and return at the end of the work for the Builder.
Square meter, one of the webpages more consulted by the Colombian people when looking for houses, apartments and other real estate for sale or lease, now also has its own application. This platform exposes more than 100,000 offerings, also facilitates all regulation concerning the property root, from guides of horizontal property, buying and selling, to calculators, insurance, credit, valuation, leasing and prices per square meter in specific sectors of a large number of cities around the country.
Being one of the first applications in Colombia specializing in farm root, is housing. It was created in 2012 by Andrés Torres and Juliana sailing, two Bogota publicists who through their app allow users to have information about the location of projects in construction and information on the status of the works in which the user is interested.
The search engine of the app can segment with filters area, property type, price of sale, area, city and stratum and supplementary information. All of this is available for both IOS and Android. If you want to buy or lease House take your cell phone.
Business with operators
Biinmo signed an alliance with the service consisting in the preinstallation since May of the application on all smartphones with Android operating system that the operator sells. Likewise, with clear implementation will be on container recommended the company in a space they occupy only tools like Shazam and Paypal.
Manager well rent Bogota
“The development of applications and web sites is giving good economic results in the business of real estate in the country”.
Erick Rincon Cardenas
General manager Certicámara
“Biinmo is the application that will revolutionize the real estate in Colombia, because it is an effective business tool.”
Computer science and cinema: “to infinity…”
By means of this study is to inform the relationship between computer science and cinema. As technology advances all the media they want to deploy their advances and cinema is not far behind, since using the computer you want to give the maximum of realism to their movies.
The film has developed many techniques throughout history but perhaps the best technique has been one of its movies in 3D, which transmit a realism to the Viewer, to the point that it seems to be in the movie.
Computer science has been one of the great advances in technology and a great help to the human being. Great film directors saw in this advance the way that the world sees the film as something great and full of fanciful things but at the same time with a touch of reality.
The generalization of the computer-related technologies changed cinema forever. The old special effects -based models and overlays went on to be developed using computers (see video: 100 years of special effects that are summarized in 5 minutes), today the film industry depends almost entirely of computer technology that makes think about a future without real but virtual actors. It must be borne in mind that 90% of the grossing movies in history has suffered some sort of computer retouching, either by software or hardware.
Using images generated by computer in movies, television and advertising, and print media.Video games use rather graphics made by computer in real time (rarely treated as other computer-generated images), but may also include «cut-scenes prewritten» and introductions of films that would be typical applications of computer-generated images, called in English full motion video (FMV).
In film and television, is used often the images generated by computer because they are, for certain situations, cheaper than the use of physical methods, such as the construction of complicated models for creating effects, or rental of long costumes for scenes of crowds of people, and also because they allow the obtaining of images that would not be feasible in any way. This may also allow an artist to produce the content of his film, Telefilm, or television show without the use of actors or other typical in this kind of project participants.
A stroll through history and films that have implemented new technologies.
In the year 1895 Georges Méliès, pioneer give her cinematography, I got on screen transformation of a bus in a hearse. He pioneered the use of trick of substitution of elements by the standing of the camera, and also was in the multiple exposure of the negative (double overprint) and the fades to black and black. His work was a trip to the Moon were born special effects in the film. In 1973, Richard Nixon was U.S. President, Alekséi Kosygin of the now defunct USSR, Microsoft and Apple had not yet been founded, and Larry Page and Sergey Brin, the creators of Google, were just a couple of babies. None of that prevented that year appeared thefirst production of Hollywood that used computer-generated imagery as a way to create special effects never seen until then. Name: (souls of Metal) Westworld.
Directed by Michael Crichton , and with actors as well known as Yul Brynner or James Brolin,this science fiction film was set in a future in which a company had set up a new generation amusement park in which they simulated three different historical epochs: ancient Rome, the middle ages and the wild American West.
To achieve a greater immersion of visitors, each one of these scenarios was inhabited by human aspect robots that were characterized with the costumes of the era to which belonged the area where were and interacting with people to make more credible the set.
Throughout the film, the production company used 2D computer-generated graphics to represent the point of view of the robot-pistolero interpreting Yul Brynner. To achieve this purpose, made use of raster images, better known today as bitmaps.
A curiosity to finish: the first film to use images in 3D was the sequel to Westworld, Futureworld (future world)title that. It premiered in 1976 and Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke, then still students of the University of Utah, made use of the computers of the time to digitally generate face and a hand of Peter Fonda and display them on the screen with a “realistic” look.
Another visionary, George Lucas, first used a computer to create these effects. It was the beginning of a process that will eventually scan Hollywood.
Studio pioneered the application of Informatics to the cinema is undoubtedly Industrial Light and Magic (ILM), property of Lucas, but it is not the only one. Studios like Digital Domain, Pacific Data Images (PDI) (now DreamWorks) or Pixar have in the gap for years, providing digital magic to Hollywood.
What are the reasons that drive the film industry to tip over with the latest technology?
The main reason must be sought in the lowering of costs of production. Conversely, the creative software companies specific to cinema, as Alias/Wavefront or Discreet (today Autodesk Media and Entertainment), get large dividends and, above all, prestige.
Step by step
The presentation of Star Wars in 1977 attended Lucas with real panic reaction of the audience.And it is that in this film movement of the ships was first controlled by a computer, which avoided the standing positions of spacecraft in science fiction films. The dividends generated by the film served ILM to continue exploring techniques. Based on the technique stop-motion (moving a puppet and filming, move it and filming again) used in Japanese films as Godzilla, ILM got theGo-Motiontechnique, in which puppet movements were programmed and controlled by computer and they could plan as prepared the following sequences.
This technique, in the year 1981, has been used abundantly in the 80’s classic as et. or Return of the Jedi. A step forward which, however, was short, because still not had designed the technology to get images generated by computer (CGI) on screen. Lucas again managed to break the tradition of effects of the last century creating new images that had no why come from reality. The miracle took place in Star Trek II: the wrath of Khan, that a desert planet was transformed into a garden in a matter of seconds.
The technique of ILM enabled remarkable advances in the composition of scenes. Without going any further, the integration of a character or digital image in a particular scene (the plane circulating at low altitude in the city on lies risky).
Through the digital elimination of unwanted in the frame elements and subsequent relevant colour and lighting settings could be that the retina of the viewer was not able to capture the changes.The evolution of the technique resulted in the morphing, which was used for the first time in 1989 in Abyss by James Cameron.
The first two films in which intervineron images generated by computer significantly, Tron (1982) and the Last Starfighter (1984), were commercial failures, which led to a majority of the directors to relegate this kind of images to images that hiceran think of having been created by computer, even if they were not in reality.
The first character truly created in computer-generated imagery was created by Pixar for the filmthe adventures of the young Sherlock Holmes in 1985 (not counting simple polyhedral character of Tron answered in binary: Yes and no). This consisted of the representation of a gentleman in a stained glass window, whose glasses out of the window, making Knight represented therein it charged its own life and walk on only. These ‘photorealistic’ computer-generated images (English photorealistic, i.e. synthetic image of actual appearance) does not persuadiría to the film industry until 1989, when The Abyss (the abyss) won the prize of the Academy of Hollywood in the Visual effects category. For this film, Industrial Light and Magic produced visual effects of photorealistic computer-generated images. The most notable were those of a creature of water that mimicked the face of the protagonist, this scene is among the most remembered film.
From The Abyss the computer-generated images acquired a central role in films like Terminator 2: Judgement Day (1991), when the evil Terminator T-1000 was surprising the audience by its composition of liquid metal, with morphological transformations integrated action sequences throughout the film. Terminator 2: Judgement Day also deserved you to ILM (Industrial Light and Magic) an Oscar for its special effects.
In 1993 Jurassic Park would change radically the perception of the industry, since the dinosaurs of the movie seemed so real and the film so impeccably integrating both images generated by computer as real sequences, which revolutionized the film industry. This film marks the transition of the Hollywood of animation from frame to frame (Stop-Motion) and optical effects conventional movements, to digital techniques. After observing the use of CGI effects (example of effects) on the main scenes of the film, before seen impossible and too expensive, some directors and filmmakers began to take an interest in them for use in future projects; Stanley Kubrick hiredSpielberg to direct Artificial Intelligence, George Lucas began the realization of the trilogy of prequel Starwars, and Peter Jackson began to explore his childhood passion for the fantastic films, tilt that would lead him to The Lord of the rings and King Kong .
Not only were people who inspired the film, because as a result of its release were released numerous documentary based on the context of dinosaurs, such as Godzilla, Carnosaur andWalking with Dinosaurs. In popular culture, there were also several parodies. Likewise, Stan Winston began collaborating with IBM and director James Cameron to create the Digital Domain’sVisual effects company, and mentioned in this regard: «If not I had related to the film, currently would go on to become a dinosaur».
In 1994 created in Canada, the first entirely by so-called computer animated series Reboot, this being the first commercial work 100% computer.
Computer generated two-dimensional (2D) images appear increasingly in traditionally animated films, complementing the pictures (frames in English) illustrated by hand. Its uses ranged from «digital interpolation between frames» movement, to striking in three dimensions (3D) pseudoefectos as the Ballroom in The beautiful scene and the beast of the Walt Disneycompany.
Toy Story (of Pixar) and Cassiopeia (of NDR Filmes) were the first fully computer-generated films, released in 1995 and 1996 respectively. Other digital animation studios such as Blue Sky Studios (of the Twenty Century Fox) and Pacific Data Images (of Dreamworks SKG) engaged in the production of computer-generated images, and existing animation companies such as the Walt Disney Company began a transition from traditional animation to the animation using computer-generated images.
Between 1995 and 2005 the average effects for a movie budget rose considerably from 5 to 40 million dollars. According to an Executive of one of the film studios, since 2005, more than half of films have significant effects.
At the beginning of the years 2000, the computer-generated images dominate the field of special effects. Technology progresses to the point that it was possible to digitally replace the actors by virtual actors, indistinguishable at a glance of the actors who replaced. The computer-generated extras also began to be used widely in scenes of crowds.
The images generated by computer for films in general have a resolution of about 1.4-6 megapixel (MPx). Toy Story, for example, had a format of 1536 * 922 (1. 42MPx). The time to generate a picture is about two or three hours, requiring ten times longer for more complex scenes.
This time has not changed much since then, while the image quality if has made considerable progress. At the same time with the improvement of the computer equipment and faster machines, the complexity of the graphics has been increased. The exponential increase of the processing capabilities of central processing units, as well as massive increases in the capacity of parallel processing, storage and speed of memory and size, have increased enormously the potential and complexity of computer-generated images.
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within (2001) was the first attempt to create a realistic film using only images generated by computer, without actors. The film was produced by Square Pictures and showed very detailed realistic photo-quality graphics. The film was a failure at the box office, which eventually led to the closure of Square Pictures after having produced a last film of similar visual style, Final Flight of the Osiris, a short film that served as a prologue to the film The Matrix Reloaded
Data processing and animated film
Animation is the technique that gives the sensation of movement to pictures, drawings, figures, cuts, objects, people, computer images or anything else that creativity can imagine, photographing or using tiny changes of position so that, by the phenomenon of persistence of vision, the human eye to capture the process as a real movement.
In the case of the computer, handle pass trick is taken to the extreme: the elementary Unit handled, pixel, is much smaller than the frame, the result is that the organizer has full control both space – filmed – as of the time object – the moving images. In the future, the lower costs enable application widely in scientific research, the generation of graphics and resources for education, in simulations of all types, and fields in which, as usual, the applications are still coming.
It can be considered the contribution of technology in two fields: as a creation tool and as ameans of representation.
For drawn or hand-painted animations, there are programs that assist the creation of intermediate pictures. It should be remembered that a lot of these is needed to give the sensation of movement. In animations made with vector graphics and three-dimensional models the same program calculated (interpolated) transformation from one pose to another.
Various file formats allow to represent animation on a computer, and via the Internet. Among the best known are SWF, GIF, MNG , and SVG. The file may contain a sequence of pictures as raster graphics (or the difference between a picture and the previous), or may contain the definition of strokes and their deformations over time, in a vector format. There are specific file formats for animations, and also used generic formats that can contain different types of multimedia.
N. Konstantinov and a group of mathematicians used the technique of stop-motion to generateKitty, this animated film, created in Russia, with a cat as a protagonist who is probably one of the first in history in which participated a computer. It is not clear if the exact date on which was recorded is 1967 or 1968, but it seems clear that at the time no one thought unwieldy computers of the era such as machines for «filmmaking». The team designed the mathematical model of the movement of the cat, model that was then implemented in a computer BESM-4. Given the circumstance that this computer did not have graphical display, so the generated animation was printed on sheets of paper, one sheet per frame, using characters to mount the images.
Peter Foldes (Budapest, 1924-1977) spent much of his life to painting, but encouraged by John Halas (founder of the study Halas & Batchelor in London, producer of animation for adults) began working in animated film. Most of his works are painted or designed by hand. After his first two films, he decides to return to painting and moved to Paris. In the mid-1960s returned to the cinema, gaining reputation for being international one of the first to work with animation via computer.
“Hunger” or “La Faim” (11 minutes) is a lively piece via computer in 2D, it consists of drawings and metamorphosis generated via computer. The film won the jury prize at Cannes in 1974, and was also nominated for the Oscars.
The history of the cinema of animation is equal or more important that since mainstream in the field of computer science film which is in this field where there were always the first technical foranimating the inanimate steps being able to get in our days to join the two genera cineasticos thanks to the computer as he was progressing technically both in the hardware and software.
Toy Story is an animated film produced by Pixar and Walt Disney Pictures computer. It premiered in the United States on November 22, 1995. As reflected above, it was the first fully animated computer feature and the first major project of Pixar in the cinema. The first animated movie made entirely by the computer world. The characters, their gestures and their movements are as natural as in the best cartoon film.
The characters and environments are equipped with surprising depth and a three-dimensional effect. The story is imaginative, it has lots of humor and action, together with the technical effects makes that the film want to a broad spectrum of public. The protagonists are a few toys that come to life when nobody watch them.
Toy Story caused a great impact on the film industry with its innovative animation computer. After the premiere of the film, several industries were interested in the technology used in the film; for example, graphics chip makers set out to transform the computer graphics images similar to the animations present in the film. Also, some video game developers expressed interest in virtual from this technique of animation game design, while, on the other hand, Robotics researchers deepened in the use of the same for the creation of new forms of artificial intelligence for their machines. Also several authors compared the film to an interpretation of Don Quixote, linking it with humanism. Additionally, Toy Story left a legacy with the famous phrase “to infinity… and beyond!” (pronounced by Buzz Lightgear on tape), leading to the production of sequels andsoftware, among other products. Paradoxically, it seems that that is the motto of the union of cinema and computer science with a more spectacular future where the end is not so but is always a new beginning and a more dependent on union between the two.
The soul of Pixar Studios is John Lasseter, see the documentary: the story of Pixar (90 minutes). He began working as an animator for Disney. His was the first digital movie that chose to oscar and his first feature film which won the newly created category of best animation length: Toy Story (John Lasseter-Andrew Stanton, 1995). His secret has been to combine technological innovation, techniques of filming beyond animated film and great scripts, with an irresistible humor and a dash of irreverence.
Filmography. ( visit movietubenow.me to get the movie)
- The Tod and Toby (1981) (Inbetweener) (uncredited)
- Mickey’s Christmas Carol (1983) (creative talent) Mickey completo Christmas Carol(1983) (creative talent)
- The Adventures of André and Wally B. (1984) (character design and animation, models: Andre/Wally) the adventures of André and Wally B. (1984) (design of characters and animations, models: Andre / Wally)
- Young Sherlock Holmes (1985) (computer animation: ILM) Young Sherlock Holmes(1985) (computer animation: ILM)
- Luxo Jr. (1986) (writer, director, producer, models, animation) Luxo Jr. (1986) (screenwriter, director, producer, models, animations)
- The Brave Little Toaster (1987) (storyboards) La tostadora valiente (1987) (storyboards)
- Reds Dream (1987) (writer, director, animator) Reds Dream (1987) (guionista, director, animador)
- Tin Toy (198 8) (story, director, animator, modeler) Tin Toy (198 8) (historia, director, animador, modelador)
- Knick Knack (1989) (writer, director) Knick Knack (1989) (guionista, director)
- Porco Rosso (1992) (executive creative consultant) Porco Rosso (1992) (consultor creativo ejecutivo)
- Toy Story (1995) (story, director, modeling and animation system development) Toy Story(1995) (historia, el director, el modelado y desarrollo de sistemas de animación)
- Geri’s Game (1997) (executive producer) Geri’s Game (1997) (productor ejecutivo)
- A Bugs Life (19 8) (story, director, additional voices) A Bugs Life (19 8) (historia, director, voces adicionales)
- Toy Story 2 (1999) (story, director, additional voices) Toy Story 2 (1999) (historia, director, voces adicionales)
- For the Birds (2000) (executive producer) For the Birds (2000) (productor ejecutivo)
- Spirited Away (2001) (executive producer: US) El viaje de Chihiro (2001) (productor ejecutivo: E. YOU.)
- Monsters, Inc. (2001) (executive producer) Monsters, Inc. (2001) (productor ejecutivo)
- Mikes New Car (2002) (executive producer) Mikes New Car (2002) (productor ejecutivo)
- Finding Nemo (2003) (executive producer) Buscando a Nemo (2003) (productor ejecutivo)
- Bounding (2003) (executive producer) Bounding (2003) (productor ejecutivo)
- Howl’s Moving Castle (2004) (executive producer: US) Howl’s Moving Castle (2004) (productor ejecutivo: E. YOU.)
- The Incredibles (2004) (executive producer) Los increíbles (2004) (productor ejecutivo)
- Jack-Jack Attack (2005) (executive producer) Jack-Jack Attack (2005) (productor ejecutivo)
- Cars (2006) (story, screenplay, director) Coches (2006) (historia, guión, director)
- One Man Band (2006) (executive producer) One Man Band (2006) (productor ejecutivo)
- Mater and the Ghostlight (2006) (original story, director) Mater y la Ghostlight (2006) (historia original, director)
- Lifted (2006) (Executive producer)
- Tales from Earthsea (2006) (executive producer: US) Tales from Earthsea (2006) (Executive Producer: USA)
- Meet the Robinsons (2007) (executive producer) discovering the Robinsons (2007) (Executive producer)
- Ratatouille (2007) (executive producer) Ratatouille (2007) (Executive producer)
- How to Hook Up Your Home Theater (2007) (executive producer) How to connect your home theater (2007) (Executive producer)
- Your Friend the Rat (2007) (executive producer) your friend the rat (2007) (Executive producer)
- Presto (2008) (executive producer) Presto (2008) (Executive producer)
- WALL-E (2008) (executive producer) WALL-E (2008) (Executive producer)
- BURN-E (2008) (executive producer) BURN-E (2008) (Executive producer)
- Bolt (2008) (executive producer) Bolt (2008) (Executive producer)
- Tinker Bell (2008) (executive producer) Tinker Bell (2008) (Executive producer)
- Cars Toons (2008-present) (director) Cars Toons (2008-present) (director)
- Super Rhino (2009) (executive producer) Super Rhino (2009) (Executive producer)
- Partly Cloudy (2009) (executive producer) partly cloudy (2009) (Executive producer)
- Up (2009) (executive producer) up (2009) (Executive producer)
- Ponyo (2009) (executive producer: English version) Ponyo on the cliff (2009) (Executive Producer: English Version)
- Hlake completo Guest (2009) (executive producer) Hlake completo Guest (2009) (Executive producer)
- Tinker Bell and the Lost Treasure (2009) (executive producer) Tinker Bell and the lost treasure (2009) (Executive producer)
- Dug’s Special Mission (2009) (executive producer) Dug special mission (2009) (Executive producer)
- The Princess and the Frog (2009) (executive producer) the Princess and the frog (2009) (Executive producer)
- Prep & Landing (2009) (executive producer) preparation and landing (2009) (Executive producer)
- Day & Night (executive producer) Day and night (Executive producer)
- Toy Story 3 (2010) (story, executive producer) Toy Story 3 (2010) (story, executive producer)
- Tangled (2010) (executive producer) tangled (2010) (Executive producer)
- Cars 2 (2011) (co-director, executive producer) Cars 2 (2011) (co-director, executive producer)
- Winnie the Pooh (executive producer) Winnie the Pooh (Executive producer)
- Brave (2012) (executive producer) brave (2012) (Executive producer)
Technological tools. Tour through the different techniques.
The digital water tentacle (‘Abyss’, the classicism of James Cameron) changing shape at will was achieved with a Macintosh and expanded creative possibilities to infinity. ILM took some time convert the graphics generated by computer in a viable alternative, despite everything. They were two years in which improved their systems to be able to download the film in a computer capable of working on scenes that needed graphic effects and return the images already modified to studies.
This system requires work with huge amounts of memory, and in practice resulted in the use of workstations that were capable of storing the enormous volume of information generated. So you could create amazing effects for Terminator 2 (1991), a milestone that put fashion using specific software to generate, modify, or edit images. On this occasion, the T1000 transformations in liquid metal were the popular Adobe Photoshop.
The age of the dinosaurs
All these advances reached its peak with the first installment of Jurassic Park, in Steven Spielberg.
For its elaboration, ILM used a network of 75 workstations from Silicon Graphics. Responsible for the effects system incorporated over 100 MIPS microprocessors and an Ethernet network.Memory and storage required for this blockbuster were 5,000 MB of RAM and 250 gigabytes of disk capacity. Spielberg used the Parrallax (now merged with Avid) and SoftImage software to generate each scene of the film that appeared a digital dinosaur walking or running. In total, the scenes involving prehistoric animals cost just over one million euros.
The success of Jurassic Park caused that in 1995 half of the films produced in Hollywood had in one way or another with computer-generated effects. Moreover, it was from this time when he began to use technology not only in the service of the show.
The possibility to generate any type of image and integrate it into a new environment gives rise to endless possibilities, since getting the dead walk (Crow) and greet the players (remembered handshake from President Kennedy to Forrest Gump) to the reproduction of natural disasters, as in the perfect storm. A paradigmatic example is Titanic (1998), the production of James Cameron in which up to the Ocean was created digitally.
One of the most celebrated effects, fall of the passengers of the boat to the sea at the time of the wreck, was achieved by the Spanish Rowing Balcels, who used this software Elastic Reality.
The last production of reference as to the application of technology to the film comes not fromILM. In the Matrix, which swept the Phantom menace at the ceremony of the Oscars in 1999, theWachowski brothers resorted to an array of effects generated by computer companies likeAmalgamated Pixels, Animal Logic, Bullet Time, DFILM Services, Makeup Effects Group Studio, Manex Visual Effects (MVFX) and Mass Illusions. In this revolutionary film will defy the laws of physics to consciousness, to slow down the movement of the characters and even stop them in the air, thanks to the technique called Bullet Time. Production contains more than 200 digital special effects, most planes in the footage.
Actors of fiction: progress of virtual reality
The great unknown in the film studios is if will be creating characters photorealistic replacing the actors themselves. The first step in this regard is Final Fantasy (2001). Its producer, Jun Aida, says that to design software that retreat the pores of the skin, the facial expressions of the characters, and even 60,000 hairs of the protagonist, Aki, have needed between 14 and 18 months, courtesy of Square Software.
Today the future improvements are unpredictable. Attack of the clones (Star Wars II), shot entirely with digital video, or the two Matrix sequels, already rolled, surely marked the tendency to follow.There is something true, as said Jean Marc Sauvetre, responsible for sales of advanced systems of Discreet for Spain and Portugal, “today there is no feature films which not used in any of its phases, for the retouching of images, for mounting or for the creation of effects, the computer. “It is the element inclusive of the tools available and working philosophy that film directors used in increasingly more post-production processes.”
In search of overcoming
Used in a film production equipment and solutions are often obsolete soon, since the industry is in constant motion. To get an idea of the State of the art to this day, nothing better than to look at the films nominated for an Oscar for best special effects once.
If there is a name that is repeated in all the productions is Discreet, a division of Autodeskspecializes in modeling and 3D animation and Visual effects creation. According to Sauvetre, for seven consecutive years, films that have been used in the creation of their Visual effects Discreet programs have occupied (with a 95%) nominations for an Oscar.
Industrial Light & Magic, responsible for the effects of Artificial Intelligence and Pearl Harbor, used solutions Inferno (is an operating system for the creation and support of distributed systems. The name of the operating system and related programs as well as the name of the company Vita Nuova, which is who produces them, were inspired by the literary works of Dante Alighieri, especially of the Divine Comedy. Inferno runs natively on different hardware architectures or hosted under various different operating mode. In each configuration, the operating system presents the same interfaces to your applications.) and Flame of the company, (flame ) that allow you to manipulate high-resolution images almost in real time. In the first case, there is a sequence where the child robot tries to eat a dish of spinach. Shading and transparency of Inferno tools were used to compose the deformation of the face and their subsequent repair.
Pearl Harbor, ILM was more than 200 Visual effects, which included panoramic of Pearl Harbor, with multiple layers of composition that they incorporated created by computer graphics. Discreet tools were used to try several options of membership on each effect, analyze the result together and separately and perform the necessary variations in a short space of time.
But there are more tools. If it dissects the Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the ring, winning is easy to get an idea of the favorite by the producers of cinema in his films. Peter Jackson movie brings together the effects of companies like WETA, rhythm & Hues, Digital Domain, Animal Logic, Oktobor and GMD. Weta Digital, company created by Peter Jackson based in Wellington (New Zealand) was responsible for adding Visual effects. Most of the environmental shots of the trilogy has some kind of digital manipulation. The cave troll that appears in Moria was the first creature who sculpted the designer Richard Taylor and the first to be scanned for your digital creation. After building their skeleton and muscles by computer, Weta Digital designers incorporated the skin scanned and made an animation test with several movements of the troll and a ball in order to show the results to New Line. To plan the scene where the troll attacks to the company of the ring in the tomb of Balin, designers built an exact copy of the dish where it was going to shoot digitally and incorporated him to the nine characters and the troll, all of themcapturedmovements. Using this same technique, designers incorporated a few electrodes to a trunk so you pretend a camera and Peter Jackson, using virtual reality goggles to see the digital dish that had been carried out by computer, filmed the scene that would serve you guide to filming as if the troll is a real dish.
For most scenarios and characters digital 3D animation has been chosen the Alias/Wavefront Maya tool, used in productions such as the phantom menace, the Mummy or Wild, Wild West.Steven Regelous, the software Massive one of Weta workers, designed to facilitate the realization by display of the large military hosts that appear in the prologue of The Fellowship of the ring;capable of creating thousands of individuals by computer, the software gives them also anartificial intelligence that allows you to add individual behaviours and to provide movement. With regard to image composition tool, it has cast hand Shake, Nothing Real, already known solution by having been used in Harry Potter and the philosopher’s stone, Pearl Harbor or Gladiator.A production of this size requires in addition to a good solution for rendering, as Pixar RenderMan, used in films like Forrest Gump, Jurassic Park, Terminator 2 or Abyss, is a rendering engine of images. Rendering is the step of 3D-wireframe models to images that may or may not be photo-realistic, depending on the needs and parameters passed him. The rendering engine calculates the lights, textures, and other variables and “build” a consistent image.
The need for high-capacity servers.
On the other hand, to store the enormous amount of information generated digitally and achieve the maximum speed in the process of creation and rendering of images generated by computer are necessary workstations and servers of large capacity. In the Lord of the Rings: the Fellowship of the ring, for example, to hold and process the 1,200 Visual effects shots have been used the Visual workstations Silicon Graphics Octane and Silicon Graphics Onyx2IRIXoperating system, has a particular support for 3D graphics, video and high bandwidth data transfer. It was one of the first versions of Unix have a graphic user interface (GUI) for the main desktop and is currently widely used, due to its extremely high quality in 3D graphics, in the industry of animation by computer and for scientific visualization, the SGI family Origin and the Visual workstations and servers with SGI operating system Linux for the creation and management of up to 100 terabytes of data.
Working with this type of servers and workstations not only simplifies the work, but it saves time.The animated Ice Age, designed by Blue Sky Studios, film uses 512 servers AlphaServer DS10Lof Compaq, configured in 13 farms and managed with Compaq Tru64 UNIX. Compaq computer technology is similar to that used in the human genome research and simulation of atomic tests
According to Isidro Cano, business manager of the unit’s high-end servers from Compaq Spain,“bearing in mind that each frame of the film had a time of creation with a normal computer of latest generation of 4 hours, and that a 90-minute film had 130,000 frames, it would take 60 years to make it. “In the case of Ice Age became employed 512 Alpha servers working in parallel to reduce that time to less than 1 year.”
The virtual actors
The application of the most powerful software and hardware to the film industry has resulted in the creation of entirely computer-generated animated films. And it is not to take it to joke.
That appeared to date titles are little gems of cinema that have earned, in addition, the critical acclaim and the favour of the public. The company of entertainment par excellence is Pixar Animation Studios, which in partnership with Disney and 10 Star film productions under his belt, has been established as the most impressive consistently Animation Studio. It is not surprising that their best films list is a difficult task to accomplish, since every launch is a success. Is responsible for titles such as Toy Story 1 and 2, bugs or Monsters Inc., ‘Up’ (2009)) ‘WALL-E’ (2008) ‘Finding Nemo’ – Finding Nemo (2003) etc.
From the moment of appearance of Toy Story (1995), the first animated feature aimed at the general public computer, Pixar has been responsible for numerous milestones in the implementation of graphics solutions to the movies “shot” with computer.
The company Pixar works for it with proprietary software, and three of its solutions have been consolidated as reference in the sector: Marionette, animation software for modelling and graduate lighting; Ringmaster, production manager to coordinate and monitor a project animated by computer; and Renderman, software rendering for the synthesis of photorealistic images of high quality that Pixar uses internally and also sold to third parties.
The other great heavyweight is Dreamworks, company responsible for titles such as Antz , andShreck. The latter is not only animated film that won an Oscar in the 2001 Edition. The production will go down in history for being the first programmed entirely in Linux. In his rendering were used over a thousand computers that supported Red Hat Linux on a server farm.
The attempt is unprecedented. In fact, two years ago appeared as a priority plan for Dreamworks migrate completely to Linux. The producer is not alone in this effort. Pixar and Industrial Light and Magic, the other two giants in the world of special effects, also use Linux in their productions and create specific developments for the operating system.
Linux fever has spread to the manufacturers of solutions as SideFX Software or Alias-Wavefront. The software used by the movie industry that have been adapted to Linux includeNothing Real Shake, Silicon Grail Rayz or Avid XSI.
It does not have a film too prone to spectacular productions industry. Accordingly participation unspeakability of a tradition of films in which it has been necessary computer, in any of their ways.
Still, there are elements to be optimistic. In this sense, one of the most important projects was the animated forest, first animated feature made entirely in 3D in our country.
The production of Dygra, which even reached impact outside of our borders, he has had softwareRealFlow, of the Spanish company NextLimit for, among other things, exactly reproduce the water particles that make up the course of rivers or analyze the movements of the wind digitally animating the leaves of the trees.
To breathe life to the characters that populate this magical forest has been used software that manages to give an organic finish designs purely digital, using a mesh control that cleanses the appearance of the characters. This process, in which you could use between 150,000 and 3,000,000 of polygons, ended with the contribution of texture to the characters, including color, brightness, roughness of the face, etc.
Apart from the world of animation, they appear little by little in our country productions that rest part of the footage on computer-generated effects. It is the case of Buñuel y la mesa del Rey Salomón, Carlos Saura, in which it was used about 50 minutes of digital effects by the company of Filmtel Barcelona, which has used this technology Kodak Cineon. Its digital postproduction work has allowed spectacular scenes such as that of the child raising the sea as if it were a sheet.
Heroes of the pixel
Hollywood has not only benefited the best software and hardware as possible in their recent productions. Creative crisis, studies tend to adopt similar approaches to the gamers in films like Tron or Rollerball, or directly adapted the most popular titles.
This latest trend began in 1995, with the adaptation of the ultra-violent fighting Mortal Kombatgame. Its success gave rise to a flood of titles that seek to attract the younger crowd, which packed theaters in the U.S.
However, the quality of these productions (Mario Brothers, Street Fighter or Double Dragon)was quite mediocre. And is that these films must accommodate two types of public: fans of the adapted game in question and those who do not know, which should simplify the plot. Neither just happy with the results.
Now returns the fever of the adaptations, following the good results of Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, that obtained a revenue of 148 million euros. The latter has been Resident Evil, that with the claim of mile Jollovich, seeks to move to the big screen success having grim saga between PC and console players.
E.T. 20 years later
Renew or die. Classics like Star Wars or E.T. are succumbing to the charms of new technologies.The latter is a sexy case of transition between old and new forms.
When Spielberg presented E.T. at the Cannes film festival in 1982 film won the favor of the public, in addition to charm by revolutionary for the time, made special effects by means of miniatures, models and more mechanical than technological procedures.
The King Midas de Hollywood has invested about four and a half million euros in Carlo Rambaldi puppets. Twenty years later, Spielberg gives us a new version of E.T. Most of the technological developments have concentrated on the own alien, because their movements were too rough for today’s youth audience.
One of the sequences that was removed from the original installation, which showed E.T. in the bathtub, has failed to finally be creating a fully digital alien, in a meticulous work that takes care of the detail texture and lighting.
In another moment of the film, when the disguised alien shouts in the presence of the girl played by Drew Barrymore, it has replaced is head of the mechanical puppet on the other generated digitally, while maintaining the original hat. Even the lips of the alien has been generated digitally in some scenes.
Fever by political correctness in the United States has also affected the new cyber army, to replace the guns of the police officers who chase the boys for harmless walkie-talkies.
The world in your hands
If you are of those who feel I amazement and envy by the effects generated in films such as the community of the ring or Shreck, are in luck. Some of the most important companies manufacturing creation of content and 3D animation software have made more affordable products for the general public.
Harry Potter and the philosopher’s stone or Titanic are some of the films that have used animation software from Alias/Wavefront, which has decided to lower their prices so that home users can become new generation filmmakers for very low price. The company has a free version on its website of its 3D, Mayagraphics software for home users.
Alias/Wavefront has also drastically reduced the prices of its versions for the professional public.Maya Complete (2,265 euros) and Maya Unlimited (about 8,000 euros) are now more affordable, 8,500 to 18,000 euros respectively. Maya Complete lets users build, animate and add voices to the characters in 3D and create objects and three-dimensional environments for games and movies. For his part, Maya Unlimited has functions to reproduce realistic clothing and skin.
Other manufacturers in the industry have encouraged to develop new talent at a low cost.SoftImage has a free version of its software XS/2.0, which is available on its website. For his part, NewTek recently reduced the price of its solution of 3D, LightWave, 1,800 euros.
A technology review
In terms of the important technological elements for the realization of digital effects, we can distinguish between two large groups, hardware and software:
Hardware: This highlights the scanner, workstation and the cash register. The scanner is essential in digital effects, since with it we digitalize images; This allows us to enter into the computer the information that was in the movie to your computer for further treatment. Other important hardware item is the workstation. They are specialized in the treatment of images.Peripherals, are part of this team also, since digitization in film resolution require a large storage capacity. It is also the cash register, whose operation is the inverse of the scanner, converts images scanned frames of a movie.
Software: in this highlight software 3D, digital compositingprograms, chromakeyers (infomercials), graphic palettes (photo editing software). It consists of animation packages that consist of one or several modules with which you can model, encourage and give real appearance to an object. The most important softwares are wavefront, alias, softimage, etc. With the composers we can mix images in a digital manner without loss of image. Other software are important them chromium (Chromakeyers), his technique tries to make an overlay from one image inside another; We need an image in black and white, which is called mask (alpha channel), the figure. In this way, we have three images: background, figure (RGB) and the mask corresponding to the figure (Alpha). This mask will be white in the part of the image of the figure that we want to keep in the final, and black image in the part that we want that is maintained the Fund. To achieve this, we must shoot the figure against a backdrop of flat color, which is usually green or blue. Clean them allow us to generate masks of the images shot on a flat color, for use by digital compositingprograms. The graphic pallets we can retouch scanned images; they are used to enhance funds, remove parts of images that do not interest us, for generation of textures, etc.
3D animation packages modules are:
Modeler: to work the geometry.
Animator: to give movement to the objects.
Materials and lighting: give the appearance and texture of objects.
Render: calculation of the images.
Examples in computer animation 3D
The technology has been part of the tools that the animators have used. The animators at theDisney revolutionized the industry with many innovations such as the use of sound in animated shorts, and the multiplane camera I think the perspective effect of funds depending on the point from where they would be. The roots of the computer animation began with the pioneers at the beginning of the 1960s who worked at the American Institutes of research, usually with funding from the Government. These as early films were scientific simulations with titles such as “The viscous fluid flow” or “The propagation of waves of shock in solid form”. It was at the University of Utah, where is I think one of the first artistic sequences with 3D animation, where Ed Catmull showed his hand opening and closing. This University was the source of major advancements in 3D computer graphics, such as hidden surface algorithm, allowing a computer to conceptualize the objects in three dimensions.
In the 1970s, the film “WestWorld” was the first film that used graphics 2D computer-generated.Many films in the late 1970s and early 1980s began to use CG or computer graphics technology to create primitive effects that were designed to look like they were designed by computer. We can find a clear example of this in the movie “Tron”, which was ideal for show the achievement of the special effects of the time.
Made many more movies showing what could this technology, but went with “Jurassic Park” where joined and showed for the first time and in a manner very convincing and real, characters generated by computer in an action movie. The film “Toy Story” was the first full cartoon film made entirely by computer-generated 3D animation.
Increased sophistication and realism of 3D animation can be directly explained by an exponential growth in the power of computerized processes. Today, a current desktop , works five thousand times faster than those teams pioneers that were used in the 1960s. In addition, the cost of the basic technology to create computer animation has dropped considerably in recent years. In the next part of the article, we’ll see how the computer-generated objects are created.
Virtual objects computer-generated
To create computer-generated virtual objects, you will need a software modeling, such as Maya or Blender. These programs come loaded with a large number of shapes in 3 dimensions, which are the building blocks of more complex objects. For example, you can model a car connecting cubes, cylinders, pyramids, and spheres of varying shapes and sizes. As 3D objects, are modeled in three axes (X, and y Z), and can be objects and views from any angle. When you start to model an object, it does not have any color surface or texture. What you see on your screen is the skeleton of the object – the lines of cubes, blocks and individual spheres that have been used to build it. This is called a “wireframe“. Each form that is composed of a wireframe lines is called “polygon“. For example, a pyramid is made of four polygons in the form of triangle.
In practice, there are several ways of to create a wireframe of an object model. If you don’t want to confine to build objects with forms already prepared as blocks and cylinders, you can use a freer technique called modeling “spline”. This allows objects to have more curved and soft lines.Another method is to sculpt an object in clay or other similar material, and using a 3D scanner to create a wireframe of the object in the modeling software copies.
Once you have your wireframe – by any of the methods of modeling that you have chosen – you can shade its surface to see how it would seem like a 3-dimensional object. But to make it seem more real object, you must add color and texture to the surface. This is done in something called the materials editor. Here you can play with an endless color palette, or create your own by adjusting the values of red, green and blue. Some very common surface textures are grainy wood, rock, metal, and glass, which often come with the modeling software , and can be easily applied to surfaces. You can also create image files in programs such as photoshop, and wrap around the object image.
Give brightness and luminosity is perhaps the most important component to an object give depth and realism. Modeling programs allow to illuminate objects from any conceivable angle and adjust as the surface of your object reflects or absorbs light. There are three basic values that dictate how a surface responds to light:
Environment – the color of the surface of an object that is not exposed to direct sunlight.
Broadcasting – the color of the surface that is directly facing the light source.
The value that controls the reflection or the surface gloss.
Modeling programs are especially helpful to create realistic 3D objects, because they contain mathematical algorithms that replicate the real world. For example, when you light up a sphere from a certain angle, the surface reflects light in the right direction and the shadow is placed at the precise angle. These details can be deceiving the mind into thinking that the object in a two-dimensional screen, actually has depth and texture. Then we’ll see how the animators use computers to create vast digital landscapes almost real.
Notes on Avatar (a challenge)
Specialists from other countries have applauded its narrative values bypassing their technical part and its development as a visual spectacle. He has qualified its plot, its screenplay or its history with glowing terms, referring to a historical continuity with other works of Western art, twinning it with great creators in the history of the Classic film, and its predecessors, as the screenwriterFernando Regueira expressed on film.  connections to Christian concepts, have established the mystical tradition of primitive peoples, explained in the work of Mircea Eliade:
«The ambitious and long-awaited new film by Titanic director returns to show the genius of an author who throughout her career still has not taken a single step to false. A storyfantasy and epic that creates a world, archaic and mythical through which is regarded and critically analyzes the modern Western civilization .»
Sebastian Núñez (read film)
On the other hand, other sectors specializing in independent film criticized a perceived lack of imagination in the indent, with a plot already widely used in Hollywood cinema in particular, inevitably compared to other productions such as Dances with Wolves and Pocahontas
In this sense, Cameron not shown for nothing evasive about these influences in the film, indeed, itself indicates and confirms above all references to Kevin Costnerproduction and The Emerald Forest, not so much as to Pocahontas maybe by the fact of being conceived in 1995, one year after starting the vagary of Avatar.
Anyway, Cameron also has hidden intentions clear, a spectacular Ribbon of a visual epic unparalleled in cinema today.
«I saw the tape of George Lucas not had never seen in my life. I want to give to the public is a similar experience».
James Cameron, interview with Luis Martínez to The world
As the title of this study suggests: “to infinity and beyond”, we find ourselves, and everything indicates that it is, only at the beginning of a few techniques that will open a world full of wonders and goals that not long ago seemed impossible and all thanks to the computer. As it could not be otherwise, this work has been collected via the internet, of a multitude of sites that appear if you cliclea on the links highlighted by what I thank all them.
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